Knowingly orientation of Ancient Greek Temples

Author Details

Pantazis George, Lambrou Evangelia

Journal Details


Published: 18 September 2018 | Article Type :


It has been confirmed by many researchers in the past, like Dinsmoor, Heinrich Nissen, Norman Lockyer and Orlandos, that the orientation of the ancient Greek monuments it is not accidental. Also the same is true for monuments of other cultures. Previous years this research was carried out by simple instrumentation like compass and simple calculations due to the lack of computers. Today for the same research there is the possibility of using modern instrumentation and more accurate calculations in order to acquire more accurate and reliable results.

This paper presents a thorough research of monuments astronomical orientation based on the modern state-of-the-art geodetic and astrogeodetic measurements and data analysis. The acquisition of these data permit the acquirement of an astronomically oriented digital plan of the monument, a digital diagram of the perceptible horizon around the monument and a digital reconstruction of the apparent path of the Sun, as it rises above the horizon at characteristic dates. The data reduction procedures are reliable and lead to an accurate determination of monument’s astronomical orientation. The study of this orientation relative to the Sun’s circle reveals significant correlations with the days of their celebration and the adjacent monuments. Here the foundings for the ancient Greek temples of Parthenon and Hephaisteion in Athens, Poseidon at Cape Sounion, Zeus and Hera in Olympia are presented.

Key words: Archaeoastronomy, ancient Greek temples, astronomical orientation, dating, Parthenon , Hephaisteion, Poseidon Cape Sounion, Zeus and Hera Olympia.

How to Cite


Pantazis George, Lambrou Evangelia. (2018-09-18). "Knowingly orientation of Ancient Greek Temples." *Volume 1*, 2, 21-28

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