Zinc (II) ions-immune antiviral activities for SARS-CoV-2 prevention and COVID-19 infectious defenses of severe bronchitis and acute pneumonia are argued, and the molecular mechanism has been partly clarified by zinc ions-centered tetrahedrally coordinated binding to catalytic triad of Ser, His, Asp residues. The 2019-nCoV RNA or SARS-CoV-2 is RNA virus with rapid mutation rate that the virus structure at least contains four viral proteins, the spike (S) protein, the membrane (M) protein, the envelope (E) protein, and nucleocapsid (N) protein. Zinc ions could inhibit virus entry and membrane fusion of S1 and S2 domains of spike protein with zinc ion-binding interaction. Zinc homeostatic status of zinc(II) has antiviral effects, improves immune responses and suppresses viral replication. The zinc-homeostatic immune concentration may provide a protective role against the COVID-19 pandemic, likely by improving the host’s resistance against viral infection. Zn2+ ions can prevent in the early stage of SARS-CoV-2 infected patient with antiviral zinc homeostatic immunity and have important roles for respirarory and pulmonary process of COVID-19 disease. Zn2+ inhibits corona-virus and anterivirus RNA polymelase activity, and the combination of Zn2+ and pyrithione at low concentrations inhibits the replication of SARS-CoV and arterivirus RNA.
Zinc-finger antiviral protein (ZAP) controls viral entry, DNA/RNA replication, and spreading against viral infection. ZAP specifically inhibits the replication of certain viruses and promotes viral RNA degradation that ZAP inhibits Retroviral RNA production and HIV-1 infection by promoting the degradation of specific viral mRNAs. The mutations of both protein and RNA at the RNA-ZAP interacting surface reduce the in vitro binding affinity and antiviral activity, in which ZAP coordination promotes downstream RNA degradation. Thus, ZAP could be found to restrict SARS-CoV-2 RNA virus replication. However, this ZAP’s efficiency for COVID-19 RNA mutation remains yet unclear.
Zn2+ ions-induced prevention and antibody against SARS-CoV-2 infection are required with Zn homeostatic immune concentration 50 mg/day, Zn supplementation in combination with CQ/HCQ, and transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) prevention. Lower Zn2+ concentration may be efficient for vaccine candidate and higher Zn2+ concentration may prevent respiratory ailment and acute pneumonia spreading against human coronaviruses (HCoVs).
Zn2+ ions-induced virucidal defenses from COVID-19 severe bronchitis and acute pneumonia are required that zinc ions can prevent in the early stage of 2019-nCoV infected patient, and the zinc ions have important roles for respirarory and pulmonary process of COVID-19 disease. Zn2+ ions-induced virucidal defenses from COVID-19 severe bronchitis and acute pneumonia are required that the transmembrane protease, serine 2 (TMPRSS2) inhibitors block the cellular entry of the SARS-CoV-2 virus through the downregulated priming of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein.